Companixa™ Turkish Company Center offers clients a customer-focused and cost-effective services to Establish a Turkish Company. Types of Companies in Turkey are limited liability company, liaison office, branch office, free trade zone company, joint stock company, joint venture company, and holding company. Companixa™ prides itself on our attentive and personal approach to every client. We work closely with our clients to discover and implement the customized legal solutions that best meet their needs. Companixa™ handles commercial transactions and disputes with the same dedication and intensity whether our client is a Fortune 500 company or a privately held small business.
Our Turkish company formation team is prepared to handle your company formation in Turkey. Our lawyers are experienced in liaison office formation, branch office formation, free trade zone company formation, joint stock company, joint venture formation, limited liability company formation, Turkish Liaison Office Formation, holding company formation, and company management and governance in Istanbul, Turkey. There are five common Types of Companies in Turkey.
Types of Companies in Turkey
Companixa™ has one of the preeminent Turkish company formation and governance practices in Turkey, drawing upon the expertise of our corporate, securities, governance, litigation, and compensation specialists to provide our clients with the information and analysis needed to respond to a rapidly changing regulatory environment.
We maintain a unsurpassed practice counseling and representing large and small companies and boards of directors regarding entity formation and corporate governance matters. We advise our clients on all matters concerning formation of new entities from corporate formalities to tax issues.
Our services with respect to company formation include advising and drafting documents in connection with the formation of corporations, limited liability companies, and Turkish liaison offices. We provide targeted advice with respect to both the choice of entity and Turkish laws under the entity is to be organized. Our clients range from small private companies with no internal legal staff to large public companies with their own internal compliance teams. For each of our clients we tailor our approach to that client’s unique requirements.
In many circumstances, advice concerning entities relates to larger, more complex transactions, including joint ventures among owners and developers of intellectual property, capital equipment manufacturers and those deploying that equipment, owners and developers of real property or energy interests and developing businesses and those providing capital to them. In all of those situations our attorneys’ ability to call upon the resources of the Firm’s other practice areas is of value to clients. In conjunction with our employee benefits, labor and tax attorneys, we assist clients with employment agreements, stock option, retirement and other employee benefit plans.
LLC is Mostly Used Types of Companies in Turkey
A Turkish Limited Company (LLC) needs to have an initial capitalization of 10.000.-TL (around 2,500.-USD) and 1 to 50 shareholders. A shareholder of an LLC has a partnership share calculated in accordance with the nominal value of capital subscribed to. In certain cases, the total share of each shareholder is regarded as one equity share, regardless of nominal value. Transfer of shares is subject to major restrictions in an LLC (such as approval by other shareholders representing 75% of the capital) and may be altogether restricted.
Subject to the conditions prescribed in the Turkish Commercial Code and any conditions provided for in the Articles, it is possible to expel a shareholder, and a shareholder may also request from a court the dissolution of an LLC subject to certain conditions. As shares of an LLC is not represented by share certificates, share transfers are effected through registration of an executed and notarised sale and purchase agreement with the competent trade registry together with a shareholders’ decision approving such share transfer.
Joint Stock Company
A Turkish Joint Stock Company (JSC) can be established for an indefinite period with at least one real person or legal entity shareholder, and an initial capital of at least 50.000.-TL (around 12,500.- USD). Under Turkish law, certain activities such as banking or insurance can only be carried out by companies established as a JSC. In addition, only JSC may offer its shares to public, and trade its shares at the stock exchange. The capital of a JSC is divided into shares, each being separate and conferring equal rights in proportion to their nominal value, except in case of special privileges.
Shares are freely transferrable, however certain transfer restrictions may be set forth in the Articles of Incorporation. Share transfer in JSC is effected through endorsement and delivery of the share certificate or provisional share certificate, as the case may be. Furthermore, once a share subscribed is paid in full, the holder of that share may not be expelled.
Branch offices have autonomous capital and accounting to carry out commercial transactions with third parties, although they are closely associated with the parent company in respect of internal management. This means that rights, debts, profits and losses of the branch offices are assumed by the parent company. A branch office can only engage in activities of its parent company. It cannot provide goods and services or engage in any commercial activities that are not specified in the parent company’s articles of association.
Although there is no legal capital requirement for branch offices, it is required that the incorporating company maintains a capital sufficient to run the branch office in practice. A branch office shall use the same corporate name as that of the parent company by indicating that it is a branch office and also contain the location of the head office and the branch office. A fully authorized commercial representative (branch office manager) residing in Turkey needs to be appointed in order to run day-to-day business of the branch office.
Joint Venture Company
Joint ventures are becoming more commonly used in all industries as businesses with complementary operations seek to collaborate to develop new projects, pursue joint financing to expand distribution, or realize other strategic business objectives in Turkey and around the world. Companixa™ has extensive experience with joint ventures in various industries and practices. We work with clients on all stages of joint venture formation and management. Our Joint Ventures attorneys focus on specific industries:
Types of Companies in Turkey:Free Zone Company
A Turkish Free Trade Zone is a specially designed production site which aims at increasing export-oriented investment and production in Turkey, accelerating the entry of foreign capital and technology into Turkey, enhancing the productivity and economies of scale and increasing the utilization of external financial sources and trade opportunities. Although an Free Trade Zone is within the boundaries of the Republic of Turkey, it is treated as if it were a territory abroad. National regulations relating to foreign trade, financial and economic areas are partially applicable to Free Trade Zones. There are 20 Free Trade Zones in Turkey and their annual trade volume amounted to more than $ 23 billion in year 2020.
Services for Free Trade Zone Company
We maintain a unsurpassed practice counseling and representing large and small companies and boards of directors regarding company formation in a Turkish Free Trade Zone and governance matters. We advise our clients on all matters concerning formation of new entities from corporate formalities to tax issues.
We regularly advise clients with respect to the formation of companies. Our services with respect to company formation include advising and drafting documents in connection with the formation of corporations, limited liability companies, and Turkish liaison and branch offices. We provide targeted advice with respect to both the choice of entity and Turkish laws under the entity is to be organized.
Our clients range from small private companies with no internal legal staff to large companies with their own internal compliance teams. For each of our clients we tailor our approach to that client’s unique requirements.
Free Trade Zone Company Tax Incentives
- Production companies in a Free Trade Zone are exempt from both corporate and income taxes
- Goods imported from abroad are exempt from customs duty. In addition, there are no restrictions on the age/model of machinery to be imported from abroad, and these items are exempt from both VAT and customs duty
- Goods purchased in Turkey by companies located in a Free Trade Zone are exempt from VAT
- Companies based in a Free Trade Zone can keep their products in a designated duty-free storage area for an indefinite period of time and they can export the products in lots at any time (at the time of export, a customs duty for the lots is paid)
- Energy, water and telephone utilities supplied within a zone are all exempt from special consumption tax (OTV) and VAT
Companies established in accordance with laws of foreign countries can open liaison offices in Turkey provided that those offices do not carry out any commercial activities in Turkey. So as to open a liaison office in Turkey, the relevant company has to apply to the Directorate General of Foreign Investments of the Undersecretariat of Treasury.
Applications for establishment and extension are to be finalized within 5 days following the application provided that the necessary documents are complete and proper. Applications of foreign companies to establish liaison offices so as to operate in sectors subject to special legislation such as money and capital markets, insurance, etc. are assessed by the relevant regulatory and supervisory authorities.
Application Documents for Turkey Liaison Office Setup
The following documents have to be submitted to the Directorate General for establishing a liaison office in Turkey:
- The original copy of Certificate of Activity approved by the related Turkish Consulate or approved in accordance with the provisions of the Convention on the Abolishing the Requirement of Legalization for Foreign Official Documents Approval Obligation, prepared on the basis of the Hague Conference on International Private Law,
- Operational report or balance sheet and income statement of the main company,
- The original copy of power of authority issued to the name of the person who is appointed to carry out the operations of the liaison office,
- The original copy of power of attorney in case that another person will carry out the establishment transactions of the liaison office.
Reach us for Types of Companies in Turkey
Since its foundation in 1992, Companixa™ performs company formation in Turkey and provide other company governance services for foreign companies. We have extensive experience on limited liability and joint stock companies, joint ventures, liaison office, and branch office formation and governance in Turkey. We are committed to remaining forward-thinking and preparing for the dynamically changing world of business law. Types of Companies in Turkey are limited liability company, liaison office, branch office, free trade zone company, joint stock company, joint venture company, and holding company. You may reach our experts for Types of Companies in Turkey by sending an email or through Contact page.